Research Article

A review on efficacy of Cissus quadrangularis in pharmacological mechanisms

Sibi G*, Sadiya Zaki, R Malathi and V Latha

Published: 04 December, 2020 | Volume 3 - Issue 1 | Pages: 049-053

Cissus quadrangularis a succulent vine belongs to Vitaceae family is widely distributed throughout tropical and subtropical regions of the world and used frequently to various disorders. The plant has been reported to contain flavonoids, triterpenoids, phytosterols, glycosides and rich source of calcium. This study aims to bring a systematic review of C. quadrangularis in various pharmacological mechanisms. Evidence from the previous studies suggested the efficacy of C. quadrangularis with antimicrobial, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, anti-obesity, anti-oxidant, bone turnover, cardiovascular and hepatoprotective activities. In conclusion, Cissus quadrangularis appears worthy of pharmacological investigations for new drug formulations.

Read Full Article HTML DOI: 10.29328/journal.ijcmbt.1001016 Cite this Article Read Full Article PDF


Cissus quadrangularis; Osteogenic; Anti-inflammatory; Antimicrobial; Bone turnover


  1. Oben J, Kuate D, Agbor G, Momo C, Talla X. The use of a Cissus quadrangularis formulation in the management of weight loss and metabolic syndrome, Lipids in Health and Disease. 2016; 5: 24–29. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16948861/
  2. The Wealth of India, A Dictionary of Indian Raw Materials and Industrial Products. The Indian Medical Gazette, 1949; 84: 476-477. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5189551/
  3. Viswanatha Swamy AHM, Thippeswamy AHM, Manjula DV, Mahendra Kumar CB. Some neuropharmacological effects of the methanolic root extract of Cissus quadrangularis in mice. African J Biomed Res. 2006; 9: 69-75.
  4. Mehta M, Kaur N, Bhutani KK. Determination of marker constituents from Cissus quadrangularis Linn. and their quantitation by HPTLC and HPLC. Phytochemical Analysis. 2001; 12: 91–95. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11705245/
  5. Mishra G, Srivastava S, Nagori B. Pharmacological and therapeutic activity of Cissus quadrangularis: an overview. Int J PharmTech Res. 2003; 2: 1298–1310.
  6. Stohs SJ, Ray SD. A review and evaluation of the efficacy and safety of Cissus quadrangularis extracts. Phytotherapy Res. 2013; 27: 1107–1114. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22976133/
  7. Sawangjit R, Puttarak P, Saokaew S, Chaiyakunapruk N. Efficacy and Safety of Cissus quadrangularis L. in Clinical Use: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Phytotherapy Research. 2017; 31: 555–567. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28165166/
  8. Kumar P, Dev K, Sharma K, Sahai M, Maurya R. New lignan glycosides from Cissus quadrangularis stems. Nat Product Res. 2019; 33: 233–238. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29488392/
  9. Austin A, Jegadeesan M, Gowrishankar R. In-vitro screening of Cissus quadrangularis L. variant II against Helicobacter pylori. Ancient Science of Life. 2003; 23: 55-60. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22557114/
  10. Murthy C, Vanitha KN, Swamy AM, M, Ravishankar GA. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Cissus quadrangularis L. J Med Food. 2003; 6: 99–105. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12935320/
  11. Devipriya D, Roopan SM. Cissus quadrangularis mediated ecofriendly synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles and its antifungal studies against Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus. Materials Science and Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications. 2017; 80: 38–44. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28866178/
  12. Gopinath V, Priyadarshini S, Meera Priyadharsshini N, Pandian K, Velusamy P. Biogenic synthesis of antibacterial silver chloride nanoparticles using leaf extracts of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. Materials Letters. 2013; 91: 224–227.
  13. Marquis G, Ramasamy B, Banwarilal S, Munusamy AP. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of plant mediated CaO nanoparticles using Cissus quadrangularis extract. J Photochem Photobiol B: Biology. 2016; 155: 28–33. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26723000/
  14. Zenebe S, Feyera T, Assefa S. in vitro anthelmintic activity of crude extracts of aerial parts of Cissus quadrangularis L. and leaves of Schinus molle L. against Haemonchus contortus. BioMed Res Int. 2017; Article ID 1905987: 6. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29410960/
  15. Muthu S, Gopal VB, Karthik SN, Sivaji P, Malairaj S, et al. Antibacterial cysteine protease from Cissus quadrangularis L. Int J Biological Macromolecules. 2017; 103: 878–888. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28539266/
  16. Balasubramanian P, Jayalakshmi K, Vidhya N, Prasad R, Sheriff AK, et al. Antiviral activity of ancient system of ayurvedic medicinal plant Cissus quadrangularis L. (Vitaceae). J Basic Clin Pharm. 2009; 1: 37–40. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25206252/
  17. Lekshmi RK, Rajesh R, Mini S. Ethyl acetate fraction of Cissus quadrangularis stem ameliorates hyperglycaemia-mediated oxidative stress and suppresses inflammatory response in nicotinamide/streptozotocin induced type 2 diabetic rats. Phytomedicine. Int J Phytother Phytopharmacol. 2015; 22: 952–960. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26321745/
  18. Lekshmi RK, Divya BT, Mini S. Cissus quadrangularis extract attenuates hyperglycaemia-mediated oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Redox report: Communications in Free Radical Res. 2014; 19: 214–220. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24946070/
  19. Panthong A, Supraditaporn W, Kanjanapothi D, Taesotikul T, Reutrakul V. Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and venotonic effects of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. J Ethnopharmacol. 2007; 110: 264–270. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17095173/
  20. Shadmani A, Rizwani GH, Ahmed M. Potential anti-inflammatory effect of Cissus quadrangularis L. and Lepedium sativum L. along with their combination extracts. Pakistan J Pharmaceutical Sc. 2018; 31: 2119–2122. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30393221/
  21. Srisook K, Palachot M, Mongkol N, Srisook E, Sarapusit S. Anti-inflammatory effect of ethyl acetate extract from Cissus quadrangularis Linn may be involved with induction of heme oxygenase-1 and suppression of NF-κB activation. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011; 133: 1008–1014. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21094244/
  22. Bhujade AM, Talmale S, Kumar N, Gupta G, Reddanna P, et al. Evaluation of Cissus quadrangularis extracts as an inhibitor of COX, 5-LOX, and proinflammatory mediators. J Ethnopharmacol. 2012; 141: 989–996. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22484053/
  23. Jainu M, Devi CSS. Attenuation of neutrophil infiltration and proinflammatory cytokines by Cissus quadrangularis: a possible prevention against gastric ulcerogenesis. J Herb Pharmacother. 2005; 5: 33-42. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16520296/
  24. Kanwar JR, Samarasinghe RM, Kumar K, Arya, R, Sharma, S, et al. Cissus quadrangularis inhibits IL-1β induced inflammatory responses on chondrocytes and alleviates bone deterioration in osteotomized rats via p38 MAPK signaling. Drug Design, Develop Ther. 2015; 9: 2927–2940. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26089642/
  25. Kumar R, Gupta YK, Singh S, Arunraja S. Cissus quadrangularis attenuates the adjuvant induced arthritis by down regulating pro-inflammatory cytokine and inhibiting angiogenesis. J Ethnopharmacol. 2015; 175: 346-355. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26342521/
  26. Nash R, Azantsa B, Kuate D, Singh H, Oben J. The use of a stem and leaf aqueous extract of Cissus quadrangularis (CQR-300) to reduce body fat and other components of metabolic syndrome in overweight participants. J Alternative Complementary Med. 2019; 25: 98–106. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29912570/
  27. Kuate D, Nash RJ, Bartholomew B, Penkova Y. The use of Cissus quadrangularis (cqr-300) in the management of components of metabolic syndrome in overweight and obese participants. Nat Product Communications. 2015; 10: 1281–1286. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26411031/
  28. Ross SM. Metabolic syndrome: a proprietary extract of Cissus quadrangularis formulation in the management of metabolic syndrome, weight loss, and central obesity. Holistic Nursing Practice. 2012; 26: 228–230. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22694868/
  29. Oben J, Kuate D, Agbor G, Momo C, Talla X. The use of a Cissus quadrangularis formulation in the management of weight loss and metabolic syndrome. Lipids in Health and Dis. 2006; 5: 24. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16948861/
  30. Lee HJ, Le B, Lee DR, Choi BK, Yang SH. Cissus quadrangularis extract (CQR-300) inhibits lipid accumulation by downregulating adipogenesis and lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Toxicol Reports. 2018; 5: 608–614. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29854631/
  31. Jainu M, Devi CSS. in vitro and in vivo evaluation of free radical scavenging potential of Cissus quadrangularis. Pharmaceut Biol. 2005; 43: 773-779.
  32. Sapsrithong T, Kaewprem W, Tongumpai S, Nusuetrong P, Meksuriyen D. Cissus quadrangularis ethanol extract upregulates superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression in hydrogen peroxide-injured human ECV304 cells. J Ethnopharmacol. 2012; 143: 664–672. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22902249/
  33. Moto F, Arsaa A, Ngoupaye GT, Taiwe GS, Njapdounke J, et al. Anxiolytic and Antiepileptic Properties of the Aqueous Extract of Cissus quadrangularis (Vitaceae) in Mice Pilocarpine Model of Epilepsy. Frontiers Pharmacol. 2018; 9: 751. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30065650/
  34. Muthusami S, Gopalakrishnan V, Stanley JA, Krishnamoorthy S, Ilangovan R, et al. Cissus quadrangularis prevented the ovariectomy induced oxidative stress in the femur of adult albino rats. Biomed Pharmacother. 2016; 81: 416–423. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27261621/
  35. Guerra JM, Hanes MA, Rasa C, Loganathan N, Innis-Whitehouse W, et al. Modulation of bone turnover by Cissus quadrangularis after ovariectomy in rats. J Bone Mineral Metabol. 2019; 37: 780–795. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30756174/
  36. Potu BK, Nampurath GK, Rao MS, Bhat KM. Effect of Cissus quadrangularis Linn on the development of osteopenia induced by ovariectomy in rats. La Clinica terapeutica. 2011; 162: 307–312.
  37. Potu BK, Rao MS, Nampurath GK, Chamallamudi MR, Prasad K, et al. Evidence-based assessment of antiosteoporotic activity of petroleum-ether extract of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. on ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis. Upsala J Med Sci. 2009; 114: 140–148. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19736603/
  38. Potu BK, Rao MS, Kutty NG, Bhat KM, Chamallamudi MR, et al. Petroleum ether extract of Cissus quadrangularis (Linn.) stimulates the growth of fetal bone during intra uterine developmental period: a morphometric analysis. Clinics (Sao Paulo, Brazil). 2008; 63: 815–820. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19061006/
  39. Shirwaikar A, Khan S, Malini S. Antiosteoporotic effect of ethanol extract of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. on ovariectomized rat. J Ethnopharmacol. 2003; 89: 245–250. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/14611887/
  40. Tasadduq R, Gordon J, Al-Ghanim KA, Lian JB, Van Wijnen AJ, et al Ethanol extract of Cissus quadrangularis enhances osteoblast differentiation and mineralization of murine pre-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 Cells. J Cellular Physiol. 2017; 232: 540–547. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27264191/
  41. Toor RH, Malik S, Qamar H, Batool F, Tariq M, et al. Osteogenic potential of hexane and dichloromethane fraction of Cissus quadrangularis on murine preosteoblast cell line MC3T3-E1 (subclone 4). J Cellular Physiol. 2019; 234: 23082-23096. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31131449/
  42. Toor RH, Tasadduq R, Adhikari A, Chaudhary MI, Lian JB, et al. Ethyl acetate and n-butanol fraction of Cissus quadrangularis promotes the mineralization potential of murine pre-osteoblast cell line MC3T3-E1 (sub-clone 4). J Cellular Physiol. 2019; 234: 10300–10314. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30443977/
  43. Muthusami S, Senthilkumar K, Vignesh C, Ilangovan R, Stanley J, et al. Effects of Cissus quadrangularis on the proliferation, differentiation and matrix mineralization of human osteoblast like SaOS-2 cells. J Cellular Biochem. 2011; 112: 1035–1045. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21308732/
  44. Singh V, Singh N, Pal US, Dhasmana S, Mohammad S, et al. Clinical evaluation of Cissus quadrangularis and Moringa oleifera and osteoseal as osteogenic agents in mandibular fracture. Natl J Maxillofac Surg. 2011; 2: 132–136. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22639499/
  45. Brahmkshatriya HR, Shah KA, Ananthkumar GB, Brahmkshatriya MH. Clinical evaluation of Cissus quadrangularis as osteogenic agent in maxillofacial fracture: A pilot study. Ayu. 2015; 36: 169-173. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27011718/
  46. Oben JE, Enyegue DM, Fomekong GI, Soukontoua YB, Agbor GA. The effect of Cissus quadrangularis (CQR-300) and a Cissus formulation (CORE) on obesity and obesity-induced oxidative stress. Lipids Health Dis. 2007; 6: 4. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17274828
  47. Swamy AH, Kulkarni RV, Koti BC, Gadad PC, Thippeswamy AH, et al. Hepatoprotective Effect of Cissus quadrangularis Stem Extract Against Rifampicin-induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats. Indian J Pharmaceut Sci. 2012; 74: 183–187. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23326004/
  48. Chidambaram J, Venkatraman CA. Cissus quadrangularis stem alleviates insulin resistance, oxidative injury and fatty liver disease in rats fed high fat plus fructose diet. Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association. 2010; 48: 2021–2029. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20450951/

Similar Articles

Recently Viewed

Read More

Most Viewed

Read More

Help ?